Answer the following :
1) Explain the causes of high birth rate.
The causes of high birth rate are as follows:
1. Illiteracy: The percentage of illiterates in the country is reasonably high. The attitude of illiterate people towards marriage and child birth has remained rigid. A low level of literacy among females is also responsible for a high birth rate.
2. Universalization of marriage: In India, marriage is considered as both religious and social obligation. Even with the spread of education, the attitude of people towards marriage remains unchanged at large.
3. Age of marriage: In India, the legal age of marriage is relatively lower compared to other countries. It is 18 years for females and 21 years for males. The low age of marriage has also resulted in a high birth rate.
4. Preference for the male child: Many Indian parents are opting to continue having children until they have a son or desired number of sons. This is known as son metapreference.
5. Joint family system: There is no individual financial responsibility in a joint family. Hence, the existence of a joint family is also responsible for the high birth rate in India.
6. Dependence on Agriculture: Indian agriculture is driven by manpower. In India, there is overdependence on agriculture. More number of children in the family implies more labor force available for fieldwork.
7. Widespread Poverty: Poor people prefer large families because they feel that more children mean greater economic support. Lack of awareness about family welfare services: In India, due to illiteracy, ignorance, etc. most of the people are unaware of the availability of various means and techniques of family planning.
2) Explain the causes of low death rate.
The causes of low death rate are as follows:
1. Improvement in medical and health facilities: In India, in the post-independence period, the availability of medical and health facilities have improved. As its effect, epidemics like a plague, cholera, malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, etc. have almost been eradicated.
2. Decline in maternal mortality rate: Death rate of women dying during maternity has declined due to improvement in medical facilities.
3. Fall in infant mortality rate: Due to better medical facilities and increased literacy among women, there has been a decline in infant mortality rate from 146 per 1000 in 1951 to 64 per 1000 in 2002 and 47 per 1000 in 2011.
4. Increase in literacy: In India, the spread of education has helped the people to take care of their life and the needs of their children in a better Way. Education has helped people to come out of their blind faith, beliefs, and ignorance.
5. Use of nutritious food: In India, the spread of education has created awareness about health and nutrition among people. For many decades, the percentage of children and women dying due to malnutrition and ill health was quite high. These deaths are now brought under control by providing a nutritious diet. e.g. Mid-day meal programs in schools.
6. Disaster management: The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was constituted in 2005. NDMA helps to mitigate all. types of disasters. This has helped in reducing the loss of lives. Other factors: Education, social reforms, rapid urbanization, improvement in the standard of living, publicity campaigns are also responsible for creating awareness among the people thereby reducing the death rate.
3) Explain the role of Human Resource in Economic
1. In modern times, Human development is considered as an end and the economic growth is a means to achieve this end. So, human conditions should be improved to achieve economic development.
2. Human development helps to reduce civil disturbances and helps in bringing political stability. This in turn helps in achieving the goal of economic development.
3. Human development is concerned with widening not merely income choices but also social, cultural, or political aspects of human development.
4. Human resource development occurs through the spread of educational facilities. An increase in literacy rate, especially among women helps in reducing birth rate and infant mortality rate. This contributes to population control. This further helps in economic development.
5. Human resource development improves life expectancy and literacy rates. This further improves the quality of life.
6. Human resource development helps to bring about research and development.
7. Human development helps to increase human productivity. For example, investment in nutrition, health, and education results in higher productivity.
8. The concept of human development is universal. It applies to less-developed as well as highly developed countries. Thus, human development embraces the entire society.