Answer the following :

1) Explain the role of Co-operative movement in
1. The co-operative movement is the greatest contribution given by the state of Maharashtra to the country.
2. The co-operative movement is an effective instrument in the economic development of rural areas and improving the socio-economic conditions of people living in rural areas of Maharashtra.
3. Co-operative societies encourage the values of self-help, democracy, equality and solidarity among the members.
4. Initially, the co-operative movement in Maharashtra was confined mainly to the field of agricultural credit but subsequently, it extended to other sectors such as agroprocessing, agro marketing, sugar co-operatives, fisheries cooperative societies, cooperative dairy societies, textiles, housing societies, consumer stores, etc.

2) Explain in detail measures taken by the government
for agricultural development of Maharashtra.
The following are the measures taken by the government for agricultural development of Maharashtra
1. The government has opened centers to distribute good quality seeds at reasonable rates to the farmers.
2. The government has increased the number of outlets for fertilizer and pesticide distribution.
3. The government has paid attention to the development of irrigation facilities.
4. Through various schemes, the government has encouraged the Electrification of agricultural pumps and the provision of ‘electricity on demand’.
5. The government has started providing Financial assistance as per the requirements of farmers.
6. The government has set up Agriculture Produce Marketing Committees (APMC), established agro-export zones, horticultural training centers. grading and packing facilities for the effective distribution of agricultural produce.
7. The government has taken tremendous efforts in creating awareness about agricultural information. The government has used mass media for making agriculture a profit-making business.

3) Explain the major problems in the industrial sector
of Maharashtra.
The following are the major problems in the industrial sector of Maharashtra:
1. Delays in government procedures create problems at the starting of industrial units.
2. Opportunities for skill development are limited.
3. Many industries in Maharashtra use traditional technologies for manufacturing goods. 4. Lack of infrastructural facilities adversely affects the movement of raw material and finished goods.
5. Due to adverse conditions, new entrepreneurs are less motivated to run industrial units.
6. The regional imbalance is found In industrial growth. Industries are located mainly in few cities of Maharashtra.

4) Explain the measures taken to develop social
infrastructure in Maharashtra.
Measures were undertaken to develop SOCIGI Infrastructure :
Education: Education is considered as one of the basic human needs. It forms the backbone of the socio-economic development of any country. Education is a significant aspect of human resource development (HRD). In the present scenario, India is getting the advantage of the highest demographic dividend due to the maximum percentage of the young population in the country. Education, therefore, becomes ‘a priority’ at the national as well as state level. The state of Maharashtra has implemented various educational schemes to achieve the goal of education. There are four levels of education in our country.
1) Primary
2) Secondary
3) Higher Secondary
4) Higher education
1. Primary education: The state of Maharashtra has implemented the Right to Education (RTE) of children in the age group 6-14 years to provide free and compulsory education under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). The expenditure of the State government on primary education was 119,486 crores during 2016-17.
Primary (Std. I to VIII) Educational Institutions and Enrolment


Number of




(in lakhs)

No. of


(in lakhs)

Pupil Teacher Ratio






Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2017-18 5.30 30.1
2. Secondary and Higher Secondary Education: Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) was launched in 2009 with the objective to improve the access as well as the quality of secondary education. During 2016-17, the State government’s expenditure on secondary and higher secondary education was Rs.16,089 crores.
3. Higher education: Apart from the universalization of primary education, the Government of Maharashtra is taking efforts to Expand opportunities in higher education also. Higher education helps in creating technical and skilled human resources which is an important input necessary for overall economic development. There are 22 state universities, out of which 4 universities are for agriculture, one university for health science courses, one university for veterinary science, one for technology and 15 other universities for general courses. In addition to these, there are 21 autonomous universities, one central university, 4 private universities and 5 institutes of national importance in the state. To meet the challenges of liberalization, privatization and globalization, the state enacted the new Maharashtra Public Universities Act, 2016. The key focus of this Act is to promote academic autonomy and excellence, skill-based education through the democratic process in higher education. Maharashtra is also the first state in the country to receive a RUSA grant of Rs. 20 crores under Research and Innovation and Quality Improvement for setting up innovation and technology transfer hubs. Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) is a centrally sponsored scheme launched by the Government of India in 2013.
4. Health Services: There were 1814 primary health centres and 360 community health centres in the state as on 31 st March 2017. Government of Maharashtra also emphasizes on programmes to strengthen the health system in rural and urban areas through the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM). These programmes include health determinants like sanitation and hygiene, nutrition and safe drinking water. The Government of Maharashtra.