Answer in brief.
1) State any four features of Departmental Organisation
1. Delegation of Authority: All major policy decisions are taken by the ministry. The day-to-day Working is looked after by the staff consisting of civil servants of IAS, IPS cadres.
2. Organizational Structure: The internal organizational structure is of line type. The department is headed by a minister who is responsible for the working of the department. Then there is the Board of Directors or Managing Committee who are assisted by Chief Executive, Executive Assistant, Supervisory, and General Staff. This is termed as a bureaucratic style or military style of organisation.
3. Government Employees: The employees of the departmental organization are civil servants and they are selected through the Union Public Service Commission. Staff Selection Board, Railway Recruitment Board, etc. and as such, they are treated as Government employees.
4. Financed by the Governments: The funds are arranged for their operation from the Government treasury. This enterprise cannot borrow money from the public without Government consent.
5. Useful for Secret: matters like defense, atomic energy, etc.
2) State any four features of Statutory Corporation
1. No political Interference: It enjoys freedom from political parliamentary and government in day-to-day management.
2. Own Staffing System: They recruit their own employees and they are not a government servant. Employees’ terms and services are not governed by civil service rules.
3. No Political Interference: It enjoys freedom from political, parliamentary, and government interference in day to day management of its affairs.
4. Financial Autonomy: Statutory Corporations are financially autonomous. After getting the prior permission from the Government, It can even borrow money within and outside the country.
5. Independent Identity: They have an independent identity different from the government. Though the overall business policies are formulated by the government, they have administrative autonomy and hence operational flexibility.
3) State any two demerits of Multinational Corporation
1. Danger for Domestic Industries: Multinational Corporations have vast economic power so they are a danger to domestic industries which are still in process of development. Domestic industries are not so powerful to face the challenges of Multinational corporations.
2. Create Problem for Environment: Profit is the sole objective of Multinational corporations. Such companies damage the environment of developing countries. To lower the price of goods they dump lower standard quality products which harm local soil, water, and air.
3. Outsourcing of Job: Normally MNCs outsource the job work due to lower cost, due to this their liabilities towards employees are reduced.
4) State any four merits Government Company
1. Profitability and Accountability: It works on business principles and follows a commercial approach. Though not profit oriented like the private sector, it does make a reasonable profit which is used for public welfare, modernisation, renovation, and development. Moreover, its performance can be evaluated by the Parliament as it has public accountability.
2. Internal Autonomy: Government Company enjoys financial and administrative autonomy. Its dependence on Government authority is minimum. It has its own capital structure, financial plan, borrowing powers, and so on.
3. Government Ownership: The ownership of the government company rests with Central or State Government who owns the major capital of the company and as such looks after its management and control. The government always promotes the public welfare.
4. Foreign Capital and Technical Know how: As the government provides 51% of the capital, the rest 49% can be raised through foreign investment. By seeking foreign capital, Government companies bring advanced technology and technical know how.
5. Acquisition of Sick Units: A government company can acquire a sick unit in the private sector without rationalisation. It can be acquired by purchasing 51% of the share capital of a private company.