Attempt the following.

1) Merits of Departmental Organisation.
Meaning: Departmental organizations are run by the Government departments headed by a minister who guides and controls the activities of the undertaking.
Merits of Departmental Organizations:
1. Qualified Staff: Departmental organizations are properly managed and supervised by qualified government staff.
2. Proper Use of Funds: The Departmental organizations provide public utilities or basic necessities. Government Department works under the control and supervision of the concerned ministry. Charges for misuse of funds are less in the departmental organization.
3. Social Welfare: The government undertakes socio-economic activities to promote social welfare. Providing essential commodities to people at a reasonable price is the top priority of the state. Thus, socio-economic objectives are achieved With Government control.
4. Public Accountability: The concerned minister in charge of the government organisation is answerable to the Parliament or Assembly. The elected representatives of people can raise the question about the working of these enterprises on behalf of the public at large.
5. Maintain Secrecy: In matters of strategic, national importance, secrecy is essential and confidentiality can be maintained in certain business activities such as defence deals, atomic plants, drugs, and pharmaceuticals, etc.

2) Demerits of Departmental Organisation.
1. Delay in Action: In the Departmental organisation there is always centralization of authorities. Such excessive centralization of authority leads to delay in action.
2. Inefficiency and Corruption: There is a lot of inefficiency and corruption in departmental organisation.
3. Less Scope for Initiative: The working of this organization suffers from a lack of continuity and stability because the policies of the department are decided by the ministers.
4. Instability: The working of this organisation suffers from a lack of continuity and stability because the policies of the department are decided by the Ministers.
5. Delayed: The executives at the lower level have to depend on higher authority for. all the decisions. They can’t make their own decisions.
6. Lack of Flexibility: The Departmental organization lacks flexibility in decision making. This is because there is a centralization of authority.

3) Merits of Statutory Corporation.
1. Professional Management: Statutory Corporations are managed professionally. The directors and other executives are highly trained and specialize in their respective fields. This leads to efficiency in working.
2. Rapid Decisions: Statutory Corporations enjoy autonomy. They can take quick decisions. There are less file work and less formalities to be completed before taking decisions.
3. Efficient Staff: In Statutory Corporation, employees are given fair wages, better working conditions, and proper training and development programs are initiated for the employees. As a result, employer-employee relations are very cordial and the staff is highly motivated to perform better.
4. Motivated Staff: I Statutory Corporations, employees are given fair wages, better working conditions, and proper training and development programmes are initiated for the employees. As a result, employer-employee relations are very cordial and the staff is highly motivated to perform better.
5. Service Motive: They are formed to provide public utility services and promote consumer satisfaction. It provides essential commodities to people at reasonable rates.

4) Demerits of Statutory Corporation.
Though statutory corporations are autonomous bodies and enjoy flexibility in their working, they have certain limitations which are as follows:
1. Clashes amongst Interests: All or majority directors of Statutory Corporations are appointed by the Government from different fields. As there are many members it is quite possible that their interests may clash. The smooth functioning of the corporation may be hampered.
2. Autonomy on Paper Only: Ministers, government officials, and political parties often interfere with the working and decision-making policies which affects the autonomy and flexibility of it.
3. Rigid Structure: Though statutory corporation-have operational flexibility, they are subject to many rules and regulations. Any changes in the constitution, objects, powers, duties, etc., require amendments to be passed in the parliament which is a difficult task. This reduces its flexibility.
4. Lack of Initiative: The statutory corporation has no profit motive. There is no competition between them. So employees do not take initiative to increase the profit.
5. Unfair Practices: Before 1991, these corporations enjoyed a monopolistic and semi monopolistic position. They were charging high prices from the consumers to cover up their inefficiencies. After 1991, due to liberalization, most of them lost their monopolistic position but skill, in practice the lack of competition as they are not aware of consumer needs.

5) Features of Government Company.
The Government Company may be registered as public or private limited companies. These companies are established for purely business purposes and to compete with the private sector.
The following are the features of Government Company:
1. Free from Procedural Controls: The Government companies have a right to formulate their independent policies and even make necessary changes in them. It enjoys freedom from budgetary, accounting, and audit controls which are applicable to Government undertakings.
2. Majority of Government Directors: All or majority of directors of such companies are appointed by the Government from different fields. They may be experts from the banking sector, insurance sector, who manage the day to day business affairs.
3. Public Accountability: The annual accounts of the company are tabled before Parliament or State Legislature for review and discussion. Thus, the Government Company is accountable and answerable to the Parliament or State Legislature through the concerned Minister.
4. Registration under the Companies Act: The Government Company is registered under the Companies Act, 2013, and its formation, working, management and winding up a business is governed by provisions of the Act. The government has the power to modify or change certain provisions laid down in the Act
5. Own Staff: The employees are appointed as per the rules and regulations set by the company. Its employees are not governed by the respective Government.
6. Promotes Social Welfare: Government Companies aim to optimise national and natural resources such as land, water, electricity, etc. It produces arms, ammunition, and other defence equipment. It also brings about balanced regional development and leads to equality of income.
7. Objective: It operates on commercial principles and as such its aim is to make a profit.

6) Demerits of Government Company.
Though Government Company enjoys various benefits due to Government ownership and autonomy, it has following limitations:
1. Inefficiency and Corruption: The Directors have no financial stake in the company and as a result, they are indifferent towards the working of the company. Due to limited autonomy and petty politics, the efficiency of the enterprise is affected. It results in corruption.
2. Lack of Professional view: There is a lack of devotion, dedication, and Systematic approach. In fact, there is no professional approach in various operations and working of the company. Thus, from the above points, it could be seen that there is a lot of government and political interference in the Government Company which brings about its inefficiency and ineffectiveness.
3. Domination of Ministers and Politicians: The ministers of the concerned departments are in charge of the Government Company. In view of Government ownership, political interference is quite common. The Directors try to serve and achieve their political motives rather than realisation of business goals as they are nominated for political gains and not on merits.
4. Red Tapism and Delay: The bureaucratic management delays in taking decisions and implementing. There is no time frame and the employees are not devoted. There is often delay in preparing various documents and forwarding the same for taking action. Thus, delay, red tape, corruption, avoidance of work, and shirking from the responsibility is common sight in Government Company.
5. Autonomy only in Name: Though there is administrative autonomy, these companies face a lot of interference from the government in all the matters. Appointment of Directors, employees, and its working, there is no autonomy. Autonomy is only on paper and not in practice.
6. Weak Public Accountability: Absence of Government audit is a major drawback in the case of Government Company which does not assure proper Utilisation of funds. There is no control over the misappropriation of funds which leads to weak public accountability.
7. Fear of Exposure: The working of Government companies like the annual report is placed before the Parliament or State Legislature. It is exposed to press and public criticism. Therefore, the management of the government company often gets demoralized.

7) Features of Multinational Corporation.
Following are the features of Multinational Corporation:
1. Advanced and Sophisticated Technology: Multinational Company has large capital and sophisticated technology and infrastructure. As a result, it undertakes diversified and multifarious activities including manufacturing, marketing, financial, research, and development.
2. Legal Existence: MNCs are registered in their home country as per their laws and as such, they enjoy separate legal statuses. It can sue and be sued, enter into contracts, and own property in their own name.
3. Government: MNCs have to bring about the necessary changes in their functioning based upon the laws prevailing in the countries of their operations. For e.g. advertisement about various products on TV is given in local languages in India and in national language Hindi, to cover the maximum target audience. In some cases, they have to change the menu to suit local demands for e.g. McDonald’s had to change its menu for its business in India.
4. Origin: The MNCs have origin in one country and the country to which they belong is called home country. The country in which they operate their business activities is called the host country. These companies are registered in their home country and have a place of business in different countries of the world. The head office controls the Operations of different branches through a network of the internet. They also appoint their representatives in host countries for smooth business operations.
5. Research & Development: MNCs give a lot of importance to research and development activities. They are also fully equipped and have the necessary infrastructure. The R&D is undertaken for finding out new products, new systems, new technology, new methods of doing business in an economical way.
6. International Operations: Multinational corporations play a significant role in world trade. Nearly 40% of the world is contributed by the multinational companies.
7. Target Profit Oriented: Earning profit is the main motive of MNCs. For this purpose, they introduce new and novel products, launch new marketing schemes, organize trade fairs and exhibitions, does lots of publicity, and adopt a professional approach in all its dealings.
8. Huge Assets and Turnover: Multinational corporations have huge financial strength because of huge capital and assets. This enables it to develop its business potential in developing and under-developing nations where they can earn handsome profits.

8) Merits of Multinational Corporation.
The following are the merits of Multinational Corporation:
1. proper use of Idle Resources: The national income of the host country increases as MNCs use idle physical and human resources with the latest technologies.
2. The inflow of Foreign Capital: Multinational corporations bring much needed foreign capital for the rapid development of developing countries. This capital is useful for the growth of domestic countries.
3. Promotion of International Brotherhood and Culture: MNCs integrate economies of various nations with the world economy and promote international brotherhood and culture with peace and prosperity in the world.
4. End of Local Monopolies: In the global market, Multinational Corporations end local monopolies of host countries improving their products and reduces prices.
5. Technical development: Multinational corporations gives a lot of importance to research and development activities. They are also fully equipped and have the necessary infrastructure. The research and development is undertaken for finding out a new product, new system, and new technology of doing business in an economical way.
6. Improvement of Standard of Living: Multinational Corporations supply their product at very reasonable prices in the global market. E.g. the price of wristwatches, cell phones, etc. This helps to improve the standard of living of people in host countries.
7. Managerial Development: Multinational corporations have a highly specialized and expert team of management. These experts are hired by different countries of the world. Also, their functioning is highly professional. They adopt new technology and use huge resources.
8. Employment Generation: MNCs create large scale employment opportunities in host countries and helps in reducing unemployment.