Answer in brief.

1) Explain any five principles of management of Henry Fayol?
1) Principle of Division of Work:
According to this principle, the work is divided into different kinds such as technical, financial, commercial, security operations, accounting and managerial. It is assigned to employees as per their qualities and capabilities. It helps in improving efficiency and expertise of employees which ultimately turns into expected productivity level.

2) Principle of Authority and Responsibility:
Authority is the right to take decisions. It is necessary to get the things done appropriately from subordinates. Authority always comes with the responsibility. If the manager is given the authority to complete a task within a given time, he should be held responsible if he does not complete the work in given time.

3) Principle of Discipline:
According to Fayol, discipline is the most essential thing in the organization. Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. Discipline helps to achieve the goals in the organization. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership. There must be a clear understanding between the management and workers regarding the organization’s rules. Basic discipline should be observed at all levels of management.

4) Principle of Unity of Direction:
This principle states that ‘there should be one head and one plan’ in every organization. Each group in the organization should have the same objective and the group should be directed by one manager using single plan.

5) Principle of Remuneration:
Appropriate remuneration to staff or employees is the principle to keep them satisfied financially as well as retain them for long span of time within the organization. The fair remuneration effects on the productivity and efficiency level in total. The remuneration should be fixed by taking into consideration the skill, expertise, knowledge, tenure, cost of living, market trend, profitability of organization etc.


2) Describe any four techniques of scientific management?
Some of the major techniques of scientific management are as follows:

1) Standardization of Tools and Equipment:
With the result of experiments conducted at work place, Taylor advocated the standardization of tools and equipment. Standardized working environment and methods of production help to reduce spoilage and wastage of material, cost of production, fatigue among the workers and it improves the quality of work.

2) Scientific Task Setting:
Taylor emphasized the need for fixing a fair day’s work. A scientific work setting is important to prevent the employees from doing work much below their capacity. By using this technique, employees will complete the task according to standards given and management can keep proper control on optimum utilization of the workforce.

3) Scientific Selection and Training: 
Management can select the right persons for the right jobs by using scientific selection procedures. It needs to fix job specifications as per requirement. Employees are selected according to predetermined standards in an impartial way. After selection, management should provide the proper training programs to increase their efficiency. 

4) Differential Piece-Rate Wage Plan:
Taylor suggested the differential piece-wage system. Higher rates are offered to employees who complete the work more than the standard quantity under this system. On the other hand, if an employee is performing below the standard; he shall be given a lower rate of wages. This technique motivates the employees to attain higher standard performance and earn wages i.e. remuneration at a higher rate.