Explain the following terms/concepts.

1) Motion Study
Ans:- There are always various methods of completing the task. For best quality and cost-effectiveness, identifying the best method of doing a particular job is very important but challenging task for a manager. It helps in reducing the wastage of time, raw material and in improving the utility of all resources as per predefined objectives. It is helpful in determining the methods for handling the raw materials, transportation, inspection, storage etc.

2) Differential Piece Rate System
Ans:- Higher rates are offered to employees who complete the work more than the standard quantity under this system. On the other hand, if an employee is performing below the standard; he shall be given a lower rate of wages. This technique motivates the employees to attain higher standard performance and earn wages i.e. remuneration at a higher rate.

3) Fatigue Study
Ans:- Generally long working hours without sufficient breaks, target pressure, heavy working tools, and poor working conditions result into physical and mental stress i.e. fatigue. It has an adverse effect on the health and efficiency of the employees. The study of fatigue and steps to reduce the level of fatigue is very important to maintain the operational efficiency of the employees.

4) Time Study
Ans:- It is the technique of observing and recording the time taken by an employee to complete a given task. With the help of time study, the precise time required for each element of work is determined. It is the technique used for fixing the standard time required to do a particular task under given condition. It is useful to measure the efficiency of an employee and to control the cost of work.