Answer in brief.
1) State any four features of mangement.
1. Management is Goal Oriented: Management activity is done to achieve pre-decided goals. The success of organization is calculated on the basis of achievement of desired goals. The success depends on proper management of all available resources. Management decides the goals before conducting the activity. The manager takes efforts achieve these goals. So management is goal oriented.
2. Management is a Group Activity: “Management is an art of getting things done through others.” The above definition explains that management is done through / with the people. It is done by coordinating all resources effectively and efficiently. The activities are done under the guidance of manager by its team members. Also in organisation decisions are taken by the group of people such as Board of Directors, Shareholders, etc.
3. Management is Intangible: Management is the collective efforts of manager. It is a process of planning, organizing, decision making, directing and controlling. These cannot be seen physically. However, the results of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profits, attainments of pre-decided so management is tangible in nature.
4. Management is a Continuous Process: Management is essential throughout the life of organisation. It is necessary to start the activity, to run the activity in smooth manner and also to control the activity. It is endless process. It is required for survival of the organization continuously.
2) Write any four functions of Top Level Management.
Following are the functions of Top Level Management:1. To decide long term objectives of the organisation.
2. To frame plans and policies to achieve the set objectives.
3. To observe that policies are properly implemented.
4. To create various department and positions.
3) State any four functions of Middle Level Management.
Following are the functions of Middle Level Management:
1. To link the top level management and lower level management.
2. To understand plans and policies framed by top level management and prepare plan of action according to the nature of department.
3. To assign duties and responsibilities to the staff of the concerned department to achieve pre-defined goals.
4. To appoint lower level staff
4) State any four functions of Lower Level Management.
Following are the function of Lower Level Management:
1. Do work under Middle Level Management.
2. To assign under Middle Level Management.
3. To give instruction to Subordinates.
4. To direct the subordinates wherever necessary.
5) State any two point of relationship about management as an Art.
The relationship between art and management are:
1. Personal Skills: In organization, every manager has to handle different situations, has to solve various problems, has to handle human resource, etc. with his own style. This style varies from manager to manager and so the result. This is because of the different skills and abilities of each person.
2. Creativity: Creativity refers to the ability to find something new and innovative. Manager finds out new ways to conduct organizational activities and to achieve desired goals. Manager develops new ideas according to the changes in business situation and in the business environment.
6) Explain any two points of relationship about
management as a Science.
The following points shows there is a relationship in management as a science:
1. Systematic Body of Knowledge: Pure science is based on systematic experiments, certain rules and principles. Management principles and functions are also based on the experiments which can be studied through various different management theories, techniques and approaches given by different management thinkers.
2. Universal Applicability of Principles: Scientific principles can be applied in all over the world in similar situation. Therefore, the same result can be drawn. Management principles are universal in nature. They can be applied everywhere, anytime and in any condition.
7) State any two points of relationship about management as a Profession.
The relationship between profession and management can be seen with the help of following points:
1. Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. Also he has particular skill in practicing as a professional. Manager also becomes an expert by practicing regularly in the specific field and can acquire certain knowledge and skill.
2. Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, a Chartered Accountant should register himself with Institute of Chartered Accountant of India i.e. ICAI. Without registration certificate he cannot practice. In case of managers, there is no such body to register themselves. However, managers can take the membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which gives them benefits.