Attempt the following.

1) State the features of management.
Features of Management:
1. Managements is Dynamic: Management is dynamic and not static in character. It deals with human efforts, different situations and different activities. It adopts changes in the form of technological, socio economical, political, environmental, etc.
2. Management is Intangible: Management is intangible in nature. It can’t be seen and touched. It is abstract. The principles, theories, techniques, concept are practically invisible. The result of best management can be experienced in the form of increased profit, smooth functioning of the organization and achievement.
3. Management is a Social Process: Management is a process because it sets objectives and takes steps to achieve them. It is said to be a social process because management is concerned with people. For example employees, shareholders, investors, customers, community, etc.
4. Management is a Continuous Process: Management is essential through the life of an organization. It is necessary to begin the activity, to run the activity smoothly and to control the activity. This is never ending process.
There are more feature of management:
Management is Different from Ownership
Management is an Inborn Quality
Management is Situational
Management is Goal Orientated
Management is Universal

2) State management is as a science.
1. Systematic Body of Knowledge: Management is not a science like physics, chemistry or biology. It is a science which deals with human beings. Management has a theories and concepts. Various principle of management like unity of command, division of labour, unity of direction are all universally accepted principle. Management follows procedures like collecting data, analyzing and drawing inferences from it. This makes management a science.
2. Use of Scientific Methods of Observation: In science the conclusions are drawn only on the basis of scientific methods of observation. Management also uses systematic methods of data collection, verification and analysis of that collected data and interpretation of data, then a manager takes decisions in the organisation.
Cause and Effect
3. Relationship: Science is based on cause and effect relationship. After using specific formulae or their combination, we get particular result in science. Management theories are also based on relationships. Fair and regular salary along with good working conditions motivates people to work hard and to give best results. Whereas, old machineries, techniques, untrained employees may not give good / excepted output to the organization.
4. Universal Applicability of Principles: The management principles are universally accepted just like scientific principles are accepted all over the world. For e.g. Newton’s law, Archimedes principle, etc. are all accepted principles, similarly in management also the principle of authority and responsibility, unity of command, direction, etc. are all universally accepted and are used in all organization whether big or small. Management follows these principles in all kind of organizations, at all levels in the same organization
3) State the relation between the management and art.
1. Creativity: Managers must posses the quality of being creative. Every manager should be able to bring innovations in the business. This quality is developed with experience. The more experienced manager can bring about changes according to the situation.
2. Regular Practice: Practice makes a man perfect. This is the rule applied by a manager. The more the experience, the manager will be able to meet any challenge or difficult situation with ease. He is in a position to make the required changes according to the circumstances.
3. Personal Skill: Every manager being an individual is different. A good manager must posses good skills in dealing with human beings. He should use his skill in knowing the problem, allotment of work to employees, give judgment and understanding to deal with various situations in business.
4. Personal Abilities: Every person has different abilities and skills. Manager uses his own abilities to co-ordinate the activities, to guide the people and to achieve their goals.

4) State the importance of management.
1. Utilisation of Resources Optimally: Effective management is all about optimum use of available resources in the organization. Proper distribution of resources and work to right person results in higher output. It also reduces wastage and cost. Maximisation of output by reducing cost is the ultimate objective of every organization.
2. Better Relation: Different groups work at different levels in organization. The employer and the employees have different sets of demands from each other. Effective management ensures that employees fulfill their social responsibilities towards their employers. This helps in establishing good relationship among different groups in an organization.
3. Achievement of Goals: In an organization group of people performs various activities to achieve common goals of the organization. Effective management brings about harmony (cordial relationship) and good co-ordination in efforts of all group. A manager creates a feeling of team spirit among the members of the group.
4. Division of Work: Division of Work means the entire work is divided into smaller lots. Each job is given to a particular employee as per his ability and skill to carry out the required activity. Division of work leads to specialization of work and completion of the work in the stipulated period of time.

5) State the similarities between management and profession.
1. Formal Education: Professionals need formal education. Today’s managers are qualified with management diploma or degrees from various institutes like IIMS, PUMBA etc. They also take formal training from management schools which helps them to work professionally.
2. Code of Conduct: Code of conduct means set of rules and regulations to be followed by practicing in their field. Every profession has their own code of conduct to control the activities. It emphasis on ethical practice in that profession. E.g. Chartered Accountants have to work according to ICAI, Lawyers have to follow the code of conduct framed by Bar Council of India, etc. However for managers there is no such association of managers. Generally managers follow the code of conduct based on customs and traditions.
3. Expertise: A professional is an expert in his field. He has acquired specific knowledge through formal education. He has particular skill of practicing as professional. He becomes an expert due to regular practice in specific field.
4. Registration: Professionals need to register themselves with their associations. For example, Lawyers must get registered themselves with India Bar Council, Chartered Accountants With Institute of Chartered Accountant of India, where as for managers there is no need of such registration with any body. They can take membership of ‘Chambers of Commerce’ which give them membership benefits.
5. Restricted Entry: The entry in any profession is restricted. It needs formal education e.g. Lawyers, Architect, Interior designer, Doctors, Chartered Accountant, etc. However, such compulsion is not there for working as a manager.

6) State the functions of lower level management.
1. Planning day to day working.
2. Acting as a link between middle level of management and workers.
3. Carrying out the instructions given by the middle level management.
4. Delegating duties to workers, inspecting and supervising their work.
5. Attending the problems of workers and making arrangements for their training and development.
6. To maintain discipline and good human relations among the workers.
7. Image building of the enterprise before workers and creating sense of belongingness.
8. Ensuring safety of workers, machine, tools, etc.
9. Making arrangement of materials and tools and preventing the misuse and wastage of such material.
10. Providing feedback information about the workers problems to the higher authorities.