Answer the following questions.

1) Explain the powers and duties of chairman
1. To maintain order and peace at the meeting : For the smooth conduct of the meeting, the Chairman has power to take necessary steps like preventing a member from misbehavior or stopping a member making an irrelevant point.
2. To decide priority of speakers: Every member has right to speak in the meeting and express his opinion. In this respect, the Chairman has power to decide priority of speakers considering the importance of the issues.
3. To maintain order at debate: The chairman has power to decide the order of the members to debate or speak in the meeting He can also decide the time limit for every speaker.
4. To prevent the use of improper language and behaviour of the member : Chairman has a power to stop a speaker from using improper language and making Indecent remarks. He has power to remove a member for his improper behaviour. He also has power to remove disorderly members and non-members from the meeting.
5. To adjourn the meeting : To adjourn means to postpone the hearing or proceedings of the meeting until a future date or to put off (a problem, discussion, etc.) for later consideration. On account of certain limitation, the Chairman has power to adjourn the meeting.
6. To exercise casting vote : The Chairman has power to exercise casting vote, if there is tie. Tie means the votes cast in favour of the proposal are equal to the votes cast against the proposal. The Chairman has power to break tie by exercising casting vote either in favour or against the proposal.
7. To declare the result of voting: Voting enables the meeting to take final decision. The Chairman has power to put to vote the proposed resolution after sufficient discussion. He has power to order a poll, if he is not satisfied with the result of the voting by other methods. He has power to declare the result of voting. Otherwise, the result becomes invalid.
8. To give ruling on a point of order : Point of order points out an irregularity in the procedure of the meeting. It is raised to draw attention of the Chairman to that irregularity. When a point of order is raised, discussion on original motion is stopped for some time. The Chairman has power to allow discussion and then to give his ruling on the point of order which is final and binding on the members.

2) Explain the different methods of voting.
1. To see to it that the meeting is duly convened and properly constituted.
2. To ensure that the proceedings of the meeting are conducted according to the rules and regulations of the meeting.
3. To conduct the business of the meeting & according to the agenda already circulated and to coniine the discussion to the items listed on the agenda of the meeting.
4. To preside over the meeting and to conduct the meeting in an orderly manner. To conduct proceedings fairly and impartially and to maintain overall discipline at the meeting.
5. To grant a poll if demanded properly. To appoint two scrutinizers to count voting on poll. To declare the result of voting.
6. To ensure that proper and correct minutes are drafted in the minutes book and to sign the minutes book.
7. To act in the best interest of the members attending the meeting.
8. To solve or to find best solutions all the incidental questions that arises at a meeting.

3) Explain the types of resolution
1. Voting by Voice : Under this method, the Chairman requests the members in favour of a motion to say ‘Yes’ and the members against the motion to say ‘No’. The volume of voice indicates the sense of the meeting. The main defect of this method is that it is not possible to trace the votes expressed by the members. Moreover, the voice of ‘Yes‘ or ‘No‘ may not always give the correct idea about the majority of votes in the meeting. This method of voting is not secret.
2. Voting by Division : Under this method, the Chairman requests the members in favour of a proposition to go in one room and those against the proposition to another. The number of members in the two rooms is counted by the ‘teller’. If more members are in favour of the proposal the proposal is accepted. This method is rarely used in company meetings as the voting does not remain secret.
3. Voting by show of hands (Companies Act 2013. Section 107): This is the most popular method of ascertaining the sense of a meeting. The members in favour of a proposition are first asked to raise their one hand. Thereafter similar procedure is adopted for those who are against the proposition. After counting the hands in both the cases. The majority of votes are easily known. If the number of hands raised in favour of the proposal exceeds the number of hands raised against the proposal, the proposal is accepted.
4. Voting by Ballot: Under this method. Every member is given a ballot paper (voting paper). The paper does not provide for writing the name of the voter. The voter has to record his vote and drop the paper in the ballot box. The Chairman appoints scrutineers to count the votes. The result is declared by the Chairman on the basis of the counting. This method ensures complete secrecy. In this method, every member can cast only one vote.
5. Voting Electronically (Companies Act 2013. Section 108) : Electronic voting is voting that uses electronic means to take care of casting and counting votes. In this method, electronic voting machine or computer connected to internet is used. Members view ballot on a screen and make choice using device such as button or touch screen. Now Central Government prescribe certain Companies for having compulsory electronic voting in general meeting. Chairman declares the result by studying output data and result shown by the voting machine.
6. Voting by Postal Ballot (Section 110) : Postal ballot is a system of voting in Which members get ballot papers sent to them through post. Members have to record vote on the ballot paper and send their vote by post when they cannot be present at the meeting. Election officials count the votes by processing the mailed in ballots through electronic means or may count the votes manually. Now Central Government prescribe certain companies for having voting by postal ballot.
7. Voting by Poll : This method is similar to the secret ballot method with the only change that every member is entitled to cast his votes in proportion to the number of shares held by him. Members or their proxies are given polling papers to record their votes. The result of poll is anal and not be challenged. A poll can he demanded at any time before or immediately after the declaration of results by other voting methods. If the demand is valid the Chairman accepts it and fixes the time and the place for taking the poll. In any case, the poll must be taken within 48 hours of the demand made by the members.